“My grandfather, Adolfo Vázquez Sr. in Beckley, West Virginia, around 1940.” –Marilu Vázquez Teixeira

“[West Virginia] State Department of Mines records reveal that Spaniards first entered the mines in West Virginia in 1908, when seven were working in New River Coal Company’s mines in Raleigh County. The number grew steadily over the years, peaking at 2,212 in 1921, when Spaniards were present in 19 of the states 55 counties. Raleigh County had the most with 557. Logan had 467.

Spaniards came from throughout Spain, but most were from the southern region o f Andalucia or the northern regions of Galicia and Asturias. Apparently, few came directly to West Virginia.” –Tom Hidalgo, “En la montañas: Spaniards in Southern West Virginia.” Goldenseal (Winter, 2001).