Polvorosa Boys 1923 – 141 Dabner St, San Leandro, California

Frank Polvorosa, Julian Polvorosa Sr. and Tony Polvorosa
Source: San Leandro Library, via Michael Muñoz.
Many of the Spaniards who, like Mike’s grandparents, had been recruited to Hawaii to work on the sugar cane plantations in the early 1900s later re-emigrated to California. Some of them settled in San Leandro (on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, between Oakland and Hayward. There, these “new” Spaniards would live among the descendants of the “old” Spaniards who had settled the area over a century before. Curiously, they would also live among many Portuguese from the Azores, who, decades before (1880s), had also been taken to Hawaii to work on the sugar cane plantations, only to re-emigrate to San Leandro in the 1890s and 1900s. According to Meg Rogers (“The Portuguese in San Leandro”), by the 1910 census, 2 out of 3 inhabitants of San Leandro were Portuguese. The commingling of Portuguese and Spaniards probably explains the name of one of San Leandro’s major social organizations: Club Ibérico.

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