An important point we will make in “Invisible Immigrants”:

Spaniards only started coming to the Americas in large numbers AFTER Spain was no longer an imperial power in the hemisphere. And the loss of Cuba and Puerto Rico in 1898 actually accelerated the arrival of Spanish immigrants to the Americas in general, and to the United States in particular. “Ni frailes ni conquistadores”, sino mineros, campesinos, pescadores, marineros, criadas, constructores, mecánicos, etc etc etc
February, 1899